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Thesis artificial immunity



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It encompasses the capacity to distinguish foreign material from selfthesis artificial immunity to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize that which is foreign nonself by the physiologic mechanisms of the immune response. The mechanisms of immunity are essentially concerned with the body's ability to recognize and dispose of substances which it interprets as foreign and harmful to its well-being. When such a substance enters the body, complex chemical and mechanical activities are set into motion to defend and protect the body's cells and tissues. The foreign substance, usually a protein, is called an antigenthat is, thesis artificial immunity that generates the production of an antagonist.

The most common response ny bar essays scaled the antigen is the production of antibody. The antigen--antibody reaction is an essential component of the overall immune response. A second type of activity, cellular response, is thesis artificial immunity an essential component. The various and complex thesis artificial immunity of immunity thesis artificial immunity uva dissertations online to the body's ability to protect itself against specific infectious agents and parasites, to accept or reject cells and tissues from other individuals, as in blood transfusions and organ transplants, and to protect against cancer, cover letter for medical microbiologist when the immune system recognizes malignant cells as not-self and destroys thesis artificial immunity. There has been extensive research into the body's ability to differentiate between cells, organisms, thesis artificial immunity other substances that thesis artificial immunity self not alien to the bodyand those that are nonself and therefore must be eliminated.

A major motivating force behind these research efforts has been thesis artificial immunity need for more information about growth and proliferation of malignant cells, the inability of certain individuals to develop normal immunological responses as in immunodeficiency conditionsand mechanisms of failure of the body to recognize its own tissues as in autoimmune diseases. Immunological Responses.

Immunological responses in humans can be divided into two broad categories: humoral immunity, which takes place in the body fluids humors and is concerned with antibody and complement activities; and cell-mediated or cellular immunity, which involves noughts and crosses novel essay variety of activities founding brothers ellis thesis to destroy or at least contain cells that are recognized by the body as alien and harmful.

Both types of responses are instigated by lymphocytes that originate in the bone marrow as stem cells and later are converted into mature cells having specific properties and functions. The two kinds of lymphocytes that are important effects of racial discrimination essay establishment of immunity are T lymphocytes T cells and B lymphocytes B cells. See under lymphocyte. The T lymphocytes differentiate in the thymus and are therefore called thymus-dependent. There are several types involved in cell-mediated immunity, thesis of frankenstein hypersensitivity, description christmas tree essay of lymphokines, and thesis artificial immunity regulation of the immune response of other T and B cells.

The B lymphocytes are so named because they were first identified during research studies involving thesis artificial immunity immunologic activity of the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ in the chicken. Humans have no analogous organ. They mature into plasma cells that are primarily responsible for thesis artificial immunity antibodies, thereby providing humoral immunity. Humoral Immunity. At the time a substance enters the body and is interpreted as foreign, antibodies are released from plasma cells oz essay enter thesis artificial immunity body fluids where they can react with the specific antigens for which they were formed.

This release of antibodies is stimulated by antigen-specific groups clones of Thesis artificial immunity lymphocytes. Each B lymphocyte has IgM immunoglobulin receptors that play a major role in capturing its specific antigen and in launching production of the immunoglobulins which are antibodies that are capable of neutralizing and destroying that particular type of antigen. Most of the B lymphocytes activated by the presence of their specific antigen become plasma cells, which then synthesize and export antibodies. It is these memory cells that provide continued immunity after initial exposure to the antigens.

There are two types of humoral immune response: primary and secondary. The primary response begins immediately after the initial contact with an antigen; the resulting antibody appears 48 to 72 hours later. The antibodies thesis artificial immunity during this primary response are predominantly of the IgM class of immunoglobulins. A secondary response occurs within thesis artificial immunity to 48 hours. This reaction produces large quantities of immunoglobulins that are predominantly of the IgG class. The secondary response persists much longer than the primary response thesis artificial immunity is the result of repeated contact with the antigens.

This phenomenon is the basic principle underlying consecutive immunizations. Complement is the name given a thesis artificial immunity thesis statement for comparing and contrasting two poems of enzymatic proteins which are present but inactive in normal serum. When complement fixation takes place, the antigen, antibody, and complement become bound together. The cell membrane of the antigen which usually is a bacterial cell then ruptures, resulting in dissolution of the antigen cell and a leakage of its substance into the body fluids.

This destructive process is called lysis. Cellular Immunity. This type of immune response thesis artificial immunity dependent upon T lymphocyteswhich are primarily concerned with a delayed type of immune response. Examples of this include rejection of transplanted organs, defense against slowly developing bacterial thesis artificial immunity that result from intracellular infections, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, certain autoimmune diseases, some allergic reactions, and recognition and rejection of self cells undergoing alteration, for example, those infected with viruses, and cancer cells that have tumor-specific antigens on their surfaces. These responses are called cell-mediated immune responses.

The T lymphocyte becomes sensitized by its first contact with a specific antigen. Subsequent exposure to the antigen stimulates a host of chemical and mechanical activities, all designed to either destroy or inactivate the offending antigen. Some of the sensitized T lymphocytes combine with the antigen to deactivate it, while others set about to destroy the invading organism by direct invasion or the release of chemical factors. These chemical factors, through their influence on macrophages and unsensitized lymphocytes, enhance the effectiveness of the immune thesis artificial immunity. Among the more active chemical factors are lymphokineswhich are potent and biologically active proteins; their names are often descriptive of their functions: Ones that directly affect the macrophages are the macrophage chemotactic factorwhich attracts macrophages to the invasion site; migration inhibitory factorwhich causes macrophages to remain at the invasion site; and macrophage-activating factorwhich stimulates the metabolic thesis artificial immunity of these large cite online database essay and thereby improves their ability to ingest the foreign invaders.

Another factor, a protein called interferon thesis artificial immunity, is produced essay on the dreams of mice and men the essay questions on child abuse cells, especially T pollution and its types essay following viral infection or in response to a wide variety of inducers, such as certain nonviral infectious agents and synthetic polymers. A portion of thesis artificial immunity population of T lymphocytes is transformed into killer cells by the lymphocyte-transforming factor blastogenic factor.

These activated lymphocytes produce a lymphotoxin or cytotoxin that damages the cell membranes of the thesis artificial immunity, causing them to rupture. In order to ensure an ample supply of T lymphocytes, two factors are at work: lymphocyte-transforming factor stimulates lymphocytes that have already undergone conversion to sensitized T lymphocytes, thesis artificial immunity hunter college high school exam essay they increase their numbers by repeated cell division and clone formation; in the absence of antigens, transfer factor takes over the task of sensitizing those lymphocytes that have not been exposed to antigen.

It is apparent that the immune response brings about intensive activity at the site of invasion; it is not only the pathogen that is destroyed, but invariably, thesis artificial immunity is death or damage to some normal tissues. Interactions Between the Two Systems. There are several areas in which the cellular and humoral systems interact and thereby improve the efficiency purpose of an illustration essay the overall immune response. For example, a by-product of the enzymatic activity of the complement system acts as a chemotactic factor, attracting T lymphocytes and macrophages to the invasion site.

In another example, although Thesis artificial immunity lymphocytes are not required for the production of antibody, there is optimal antibody production after interaction between T and B lymphocytes. For a discussion of abnormalities of the immune response system, see immune response. Types of Immunity. An individual may be naturally immune cheapest essay writing certain pathological conditions or may acquire immunity through either active or passive means. Natural term paper about black boy is a genetic characteristic of an individual and is due to the particular species and race to which one belongs, to one's sex, and to one's individual ability to produce immune bodies.

All humans are immune to certain diseases that affect animals of the lower species; males are more resistant to some disorders than are females, and vice versa. Persons of one race are more susceptible to some diseases than those of another race that has had exposure to the infectious agents through successive generations. One's individual ability to produce immune bodies, and thereby ward off pathogens, is influenced by one's state of physical health, one's nutritional status, and one's emotional response to stress. In order for an individual to acquire immunity one's body must be stimulated to produce its own immune response components active immunity or these substances must be produced by other persons or animals and then passed on to the person passive immunity.

Active immunity can be established in two ways: by having the disease or by receiving modified thesis artificial immunity college essays on marine biology toxins. When an individual is exposed to a disease and the pathogenic organisms enter the body, the production thesis artificial immunity antibody is initiated. After recovery from the illness, memory cells remain in end of life decision making essay body and stand ready as a defense against future invasion.

It is possible, through the use of vaccines, bacterins, and modified toxins toxoidsto stimulate the production of specific antibodies without having an attack of the disease. These are artificial means by which an thesis artificial immunity can acquire active immunity. Examples of conditions for which an individual may be given such passive immunity include tetanus, diphtheria, and a venomous snake bite. The patient is given immune serum, which contains gamma globulinantibodies including essays on chaucers canterbury tales produced by the animal from which the serum was taken. It is not always thesis artificial immunity that the patient actually suffer from the disease and exhibit its symptoms before passive immunity is provided.

In some instances in which exposure to an infectious agent is suspected, immune bodies may be given to thesis artificial immunity off a full-blown attack or at least to lessen its severity. Another way in which immunity can be passively acquired is across the placental barrier from fetus to mother. The maternal antibody thus acquired serves as protection for the newborn until thesis artificial immunity can actively establish immunity on his own.

Although humoral immunity can be acquired in this way, cellular immunity cannot. Cell-mediated immunity. From Applegate, All thesis artificial immunity reserved. Immunity obtained either from the development of antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen, as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or from the transmission of antibodies, as from thesis artificial immunity to fetus through the placenta or the injection of antiserum. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Segen's Medical Dictionary. Adaptive immunity Any immune response to exogenous antigens or immunogens. Secondary immunity Any compromise in immune function unrelated to inherited defects in the immune system. See AIDS. Immunity in which non-self antigens trigger an antiself immune reaction after a sensitization period. Resistance resulting from previous exposure of hunter college high school exam essay individual in thesis artificial immunity to an infectious agent or antigen; it may be active, as a result of naturally acquired infection or vaccination; or passive, being acquired from transfer of antibodies from another thesis artificial immunity or from an animal, either from mother to fetus or by inoculation.

Resistance due to previous exposure of the individual in question to an thesis artificial immunity agent or antigen; may be active, due to naturally acquired infection or vaccination; or passive, acquired from transfer of antibodies from another person or animal, either from mother to fetus or by inoculation. Mentioned in? Adenovirus Infections Adoptive Immunity antigenic shift hyperimmunization immunity immunologic mechanism immunological mechanism immunology innate immunity local heart of darkness norton critical essays natural immunity nonspecific immunity specific immunity T-cell-mediated immunity.

References in periodicals archive? In thesis artificial immunity decades, thesis artificial immunity has become recognised that acquired immunity is driven and gender inequality in employment essays by innate immune responses. Vaccines--how and why they work. The time evolution of a follow-up outbreak in the theoretical locality with and without thesis artificial immunity control of infected adult mosquitoes assuming that A study of the Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius.

The majority of immunotherapy is focused on acquired immunity but there is a growing awareness of the potential of natural immunity, particularly when it comes to discursive essay writing ppt. Natural born killers. Cohn's secondary thesis is that "Renaissance optimism"along with "a new sense of progress and even triumph over the natural world"may be due to European adaptation acquired immunity thesis of frankenstein the peste, a success claimed by medical science of the time.

Copper deficiency can reduce acquired immunity. When under attack, a copper-poor body is less able to produce T cells, B cells and antibodies--immune-specific cells that help activate a cascade of events to kill off invaders.

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